The 2003 revolution

The Six Technology Revolutions

from Carlotta Perez
Technology & Start
New Technologies and new or redefined industries New or redefined infrastructure



Mechanized cotton, wrought Iron, machinery Canals and waterways, turnpike roads, water power from improved water wheels


Steam & Railways

Steam engines and machines for many industries (including textiles), iron and coal mining, railway construction, rolling stock production Railways (steam engine), universal postal services, telegraph (along railway lines), great ports, depots and worldwide sailing ships, city gas


Steel, electricity and heavy engineering

Cheap steel, steam for steel ships, heavy chemistry and civil engineering, electrical equipment, copper and cables, canned and bottled food, paper and packaging Worldwide shipping (Suez Canal), railways, and canals; great bridges and tunnels, national telephone, electric networks


Oil, automobile and mass production

Mass produced automobiles, cheap oil and fuels, petrochemicals (synthetics), consumer, defense and industrial use of the Internal combustion engine, home electrical appliances, refrigerated and frozen foods Networks of highways, ports and airports, networks of oil ducts, universal electricity, worldwide analog telecommunications (analog telephone, telex, and cablegram) wire and wireless


Information and 

Cheap microelectronics, computers and software, telecommunications, control of instruments, computer-aided design, biotechnology and raw materials Cable, fiber optics, radio and satellite world wide digital communications, internet and email, electricity networks that are multiple source and flexible, high speed physical transport links (land, air and water)


Cleantech and Biotech

  Renewable energy lead by solar, wind and biofules; energy efficiency, energy storage, electric vehicles, nano materials, synthetic biology Enhanced electricity transmission, decentralized power generation, connection of electric and transportation energy infrastructure, demand response management, increased availability of water and electricity, extensive gene data 

About Carlotta Perez

Researcher, lecturer and international consultant, specialized in the social and economic impact of technical change and in the historically changing conditions for growth, development and competitiveness. 

Publications include:

  • Finance and technical change:A long-term view
  • Technological revolutions,paradigm shifts and socio-institutional change
  • Why IT and the green economy are the real answer to the financial crisis 

More information at